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雅思写作议论文的5种论证方法
发布时间:2018/4/20  浏览次数:129  来源:本站
标签:杭州环球 环球雅思 环球雅思培训

 对于绝大多数“烤鸭”而言,完成议论文正文的论证部分并不容易:一方面,“烤鸭”们的作文明显表现出论证单薄﹑内容空洞等问题。另一方面,写作的评分标准中有两项针对考生论证实力的检测,分别为写作任务的完成度和表达的连贯统一性。

  因此,如何全面掌握和正确使用各种论证方法是“烤鸭”们写作备考中亟待解决的问题。接下来介绍一些议论文的主要论证方法以及考生应该如何使用这些方法。
  一、举例论证
  举例论证是最有利于增强论述的可靠性与说服力的方法,同时,也是考官建议考生使用的。在雅思考题下方总会有这样一句话:"Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience."
  1.常见表达方式
  ①关联词
  优势:关联词能够较为方便的引出例子,主要是因为用这种方法引出的例子多是独立的句子,语法上的束缚少些。
  关联词:as a proof,as an illustration,as an example,for example,for instance,in particular,just as,namely,specifically,to illustrate,to demonstrate.
  ②句型
  优势:句型引出例子,能够保证表达的书面度与学术性。但是在使用时,考生需要特别注意语法正确。
  句型:A good case in point is that ….
  A typical example can be found in ….
  Take … for example.
  …which may include ….
  2.使用注意事项
  ①选择典型的例子
  在明确引出例子的方法后,考生应当重视例子本身的质量。这里主要是指保证例子的典型性与普遍性,举例自己的家庭不如举例一类家庭,举例自己的国家不如举例一类国家。个别的现象,非主流的观点是不具备说服力的。
  ②议论列举的例子
  举例子,在说明文中使用也很普遍。但是,议论文中的举例与说明文中的举例是不同的。议论文在举例过程中需要考生有适当的议论或是评价,而不是机械呆板的说明情况。
  ③控制例子的字数
  举例子,在记叙文中使用也很广泛,一篇记叙文几乎就是在讲一个故事或经历。但是,议论文的例子万万不可这么长篇大论的写,一个论点的例子应控制在一句话左右,有时甚至只需一个名词短语就可以完成。
  3.范例评析
  剑桥雅思考试全真试题6 Test B考官范文选段
  Even when children use a computer for other purposes,such asgetting information or emailing friends, it is no substitute for human interaction. Spending time with other children and sharing non-virtual experiences is an important part of a child's development that cannot be provided by a computer.
  点评:考官这段对"使用电脑给孩子带来危害"的议论,用"such as"直接引出使用电脑的目的"getting information or emailing friends"。并且在举例的同时就评价说"it is no substitute for human interaction",使用电脑与他人交流不能代替面对面的互动。进一步议论说"Spending time with other children and sharing non-virtual experiences",在真实的环境而非虚拟的环境与同伴相处是孩子成长所必须的,电脑无法胜任。正所谓,举例言简意赅,议论及时深刻。
  二、因果论证
  因果论证是考生普遍反映比较容易上手且使用范围广泛的论证方法。它的正确使用能够大幅提高论述的逻辑性与连贯度,体现考生的缜密思维。
  1.常见表达方式
  ①关联词
  优势:关联词能够较为方便的引出结果,因为这种方法引出的多是独立的句子表达,语法上的束缚少一些。
  关联词:therefore, hence, thus, as a result, consequently, interestingly, fortunately, unfortunately, surprisingly, unsurprisingly.
  ②句型
  优势:句型引出原因或结果,能够保证表达的书面度与学术性。但是在使用时,考生需要特别注意语法正确。
  句型:Due to/ owing to/ because of /thanks to…, …
  As /since/because…, …
  The reason why … is that …
  … be related/linked to …
  … be associated/connected with …
  … contribute to/ give rise to …
  2.使用注意事项
  ①主观与客观相结合
  在分析原因时,不仅要关注客观原因,比如经济不景气,工作经验少等人或事本身具有的属性或特点,还应当考虑从主观方面着手,比如有的大学毕业生眼高手低好高骛远,大众想要有更舒适的生活等人的意识或精神。
  ② 积极与消极相结合
  在引出结果时,考生不仅需要关注原因引发的积极结果,有时也可以根据自己的需要论述它所引发的消极结果。特别是在应对讨论式的观点题时,这种思想体现的最为明显。
  3.范例评析
  剑桥雅思考试全真试题6 Test 2 考官范文选段
  Those who feel that sports star's salaries are justified might argue that the number of professionals with real talent is very few, and the money is recognition of the skills and dedication a person needs to be successful. Competition is constant and a player is tested every time they perform in their relatively short career. The pressure from the media is intense and there is little privacy out of the spotlight. So all of these factors may justify the huge earnings.
  点评:考官从体育奇才数量少"The number of professionals with real talent is very few",竞争强度大"Competition is constant",训练时间长"A player is tested every time", 体育生涯短"relatively short career",媒体关注度高、压力大"the pressure from the media",隐私基本得不到保护"little privacy out of the spotlight"多方面论证"体育明星的高收入是合理的"。正所谓,分析原因层层深入,得出结论水到渠成。
  三、对比论证
  对比论证的方法,主要适用于考题中出现两个对象比较的情况。从操作性上看,对比论证较为方便。论证对比的角度,只需从考题中的两个对象入手即可。
  1.常见表达方式
  ①关联词
  In contrast, by comparison, on the other hand, just as, similarly
  ②句型
  Compared with ……
  While/whereas……
  ③形容词的比较级
  在不同的考题中,如果出现两个对象的比较,一般在对比论证中都会有一些形容词的比较级出现。考生应根据不同的话题选择不同的词汇。
  2.范例评析
  剑桥雅思考试全真试题8 Test 2
  题目:Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of society. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  考官范文选段:
  However, learning to understand and share the value system of a whole society cannot be achieved just in the home. Once a child goes to school, they are entering a wider community where teachers and peers will have just as much influence as their parents do at home. At school, children will experience working and living with people from whole variety of backgrounds for the wider society. This experience should teach them how to cooperate with each other and how to contribute to the life of their community.
  点评:这道题的主题为"孩子社会意识的教育与培养是靠家庭还是靠学校"。考官在论证学校的教育义务时,着重强调了:相比较家庭,"teachers and peers will have just as much influence as their parents do at home"。学校中的老师和同学对孩子社会意识的培养有相同的影响力。而且,在学校相比较在家,"experience working and living with people from whole variety of backgrounds for the wider society"。孩子接触的世界更大,人的类型更多。正所谓,公正合理两方面,对比论证出真知
  四、引用论证
  引用论证,是最为考验考生知识储备的一种论证方法。引用论证,一般引用名人名言﹑权威数据,研究成果﹑学术刊物,它能够增加论证的可信度和权威性。
  但是,这种论证方法最容易被考生误用或滥用,很多考生没有知识储备就自己捏造一些名言或数据。最夸张的是有时所谓"名言"却出现语法错误,所谓"权威数据"却不合情理甚至荒谬。
  因此,建议考生们在备考时适当准备几句名言警句,如果能在考试中用上最好,如果不能那就使用前面介绍的几种论证方法。但是,对于知识面较广,语言水平较高的考生,完全可以使用引用论证,这样不仅能增强论证的权威感也能展现自己的优势。
  1.常见表达方式
  According to a recent study, according to a recent article published in …, according to a recent survey conducted by…,
  A recent study/survey found that…
  A recent opinion poll revealed that …
  2.范例评析
  剑桥雅思考试全真试题5 Test4
  题目: Research indicates that the characteristics we are born with have much more influence on our personality and development than any experiences we may have in our life. Which do you consider to be the major influence?
  考官范文选段:
  Today the way we consider human psychology and mental development is heavily influenced by the genetic sciences.Research, relating to identical twins,has highlightedhow significant inherited characteristics can be for an individual's life.
  点评:这道题的主题是"先天还是后天决定人的性格和发展",考官的这段论证主要是证明先天的影响更大些,引用了一个有关双胞胎的研究。对研究发现的引用使得第一句的论点没有那么苍白无力。但是,通过翻看剑桥系列丛书,不难发现引用论证在考官的范文中的使用可以用"基本罕见"来形容。引用论证用得少,粗制滥造没必要。
  五、总结论证
  实际上,总结论证是解决论证过程中"无话可说"的应急策略。它的位置一定是放在正文段的最后一句,总结整个段落的内容。虽然这种方法有一定作用,但并不建议考生多用,一篇文章用一次就足以了,用多了就会产生凑字数的嫌疑。
  1.常见表达方式
  It can be concluded that …
  It is little wondering that…
  There is no exaggeration that …
  It is logical to conclude that …
  It is no exaggeration to say that …
  2.范例评析
  剑桥雅思考试全真试题6 Test B
  题目: Using a computer every day can have more negative than positive effects on young children. Do you agree or disagree?
  考官范文选段:
  In spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied. Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology and the Internet is the key to all the knowledge and information available in the world today. Therefore, it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and working lives.
  点评:这道考题要求考生对"孩子每天使用电脑是否利大于弊"展开讨论。考官在指出使用电脑能够帮助孩子了解更多知识,适应未来成人社会的生活后,在最后一句把前文的话换了种句型又说了一遍。"Therefore, it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and working lives." 由此可见,即使是考官在需要强调或总结的时候,也会对段落小结一下。正所谓,总结论证放心用,应急时候是帮手。
  综上所述,议论文的五种论证方法各有千秋。要想正确使用,就必须对各种论证方法的作用、适用范围、使用方法熟练掌握。在掌握论证方法后,再着手润色语言的表达,长此以往,坚持不懈,写作高分指日可待!
 

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